LPHYS'16.    Plenary Speakers:

  1. ICD and Its Exploration by Short, Intense and Coherent Light Pulses

    Abstract:

    How does a microscopic system like an atom or a small molecule get rid of the excess electronic energy it has acquired, for instance, by absorbing a photon? If this microscopic system is isolated, the issue has been much investigated and the answer to this question is more or less well known. But what happens if our system has neighbors as is usually the case in nature or in the laboratory? In a human society, if our stress is large, we would like to pass it over to our neighbors. Indeed, this is in brief what happens also to the sufficiently excited microscopic system. A new mechanism of energy transfer has been theoretically predicted and verified in several exciting experiments. This mechanism seems to prevail "everywhere" from the extreme quantum system of the He dimer to water and even to quantum dots. The transfer is ultrafast and typically dominates other relaxation pathways.

    To exploit the high intensity of laser radiation available today, we also propose to select frequencies at which single-photon absorption is of too low energy and two or more photons are needed to produce states of an atom that can undergo interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) with its neighbors. The study can provide a hint how the energy deposited by a FEL on one site in a medium can be transferred fast to the surrounding.

    Work on ICD can be found on the ICD Bibliography.

  2. Laser Filamentation: from Basic Physics to Applications

    Abstract:

    Motivated by spectacular applications in the field of atmospheric remote sensing, weather modulation of THz generation, the studies of the filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses also involve a very rich physics. On the microscopic scale, efforts to better describe and model filamentation led to new results regarding strong-field – atom interaction, the role of harmonics in polarization and ionization. Furthermore, filaments exhibit analogies with various physical systems, from spin glasses to rogue waves, offering new connections between these fields of physics, and allowing new descriptions and understanding of nonlinear optics.

  3. Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO): Machine Review and the Contribution of the Institute of Applied Physics

    Abstract:

    We describe key elements of LIGO detector: interferometer design, laser stabilization, core optics, suspension, seismic isolation, vacuum system, signal search. We discuss what limits the sensitivity of the interferometer and what was measured on . The Institute of Applied Physics (IAP) of the Russian Academy of Sciences has been a member of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration since 1997. We review IAP’s contributions to LIGO: high power Faraday isolators, white light in situ measurement interferometer, active control of thermal lens, remote testing of wave front distortions using self-focusing, remote monitoring of optical surface quality by phase conjugation, detection of contaminations on LIGO mirrors using reflected second harmonic generation.

  4. Laser Modification of Biotissues Structure and Properties in Otolaryngology, Orthopaedics and Ophthalmology

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      Emil N Sobol


      Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, RAS, Troitsk, Moscow, Russia
    Abstract:

    Although lasers used for tissue ablation in surgery for a long time, their application for controllable tissue modification is relatively new and opens new avenues in medicine. In 1992 we identified laser-induced stress relaxation in the biological tissues. This led to the development of a family of novel laser applications for the non-ablative correction of nasal septum shape and eye refraction, making cartilage implants, restoration the joints and intervertebral discs, normalization of the intraocular pressure in glaucomatous eyes. This talk will present state of art and some new results in cartilage and cornea reshaping under thermo-mechanical effect of laser radiation. We will characterize the physical processes and mechanisms involved in the laser-induced modification of tissue nanostructure and stress relaxation. In particular, we will consider theoretical model allowing laser settings optimization for laser-induced formation of nanopore system in the tissues promoting cartilage regeneration and normalization of intraocular pressure. Clinical examples and prospects will be discussed.